Types of construction cranes and their application

The constant development of cities and the increasing overall dimensions of buildings are reflected in the construction site, where a construction crane is an obligatory solution for the construction of skyscrapers. Although they differ in terms of load capacity, mobility and the individual components depending on the model, their main task is to transport people and building materials vertically. The safety rules also do not differ from the standards, regardless of the type of device used. Using the above-mentioned characteristics, we can distinguish them into a passenger-goods lift (transport of cargo and people) or a goods lift (transport of the load itself).  

Every person involved in renting or operating a construction crane for their own use should be aware of the responsibilities that rest on their shoulders. All the machines listed above are subject to technical inspection and should be operated in accordance with the operation and use manual, i.e .:  

Each device should have a workplace manual developed on the basis of the operating manual, it is the task of the operator, so that every crane operator can consult it. In order to ensure the safe use of the device, the operator is obliged to carry out proper maintenance of the machine in accordance with the requirements of Annex 2 to the Regulation of the Minister of Entrepreneurship and Technology of May 21, 2019 on the method and procedure for checking the qualifications required for the operation and maintenance of technical devices and the manner and procedure for extending the validity period of qualification certificates. Technical condition tests should be carried out within the prescribed deadlines specified in Annex 2 to the Regulation of the Minister of Entrepreneurship and Technology of October 30, 2018 on technical conditions of technical inspection in the field of operation, repair and modernization of handling equipment (Journal of Laws 2018, No. item 2176), unless the manufacturer specified otherwise. Another obligation on the part of the operator of the device is to create a maintenance log, which should be regularly kept by the maintenance person. 


A crane is a massive construction machine that allows you to build skyscrapers, high-rise office buildings and edifices. Cranes are constructed of a column and boom, the appearance and general use of which differ depending on the model. Column often is reduced to a swivel base on which there is a tilting telescopic boom. Most often, the boom is installed in two places: leaning at the top of the column, or pulled out inside the column with a lead placed on the top. A tractor is mounted at the end of the boom. The power necessary for the efficient operation of the crane is provided by several electric motors, which provide the energy needed to drive the chassis, swing the boom, deflect the boom, move the pin and lift the hook. Without them, the operation of the machine would not be possible. 

A different structure is characterized by levers for people and goods (goods lifts), in which the goods are moved in cabins or on platforms rising and falling along vertical guides. They most often use a free-standing structure, inside which there are many movable elements that pose a threat to workers occupying their positions near the elevator. For this reason, free spaces are fenced off by a steel mesh. Interestingly, the lifts are designed with a lifting capacity greater than that indicated in the papers, it is also to ensure safety with small differences in lifting capacity and to put a certain margin, which should not be exceeded bearing in mind the "good" - the efficiency of the device. The structure of the goods lift is most often external, self-supporting, based on 4 poles. The space of the cabin is usually adjusted to the dimensions of the goods transported, often with a designated space for a certain number of pallets. The form of finishing, ie the "frame", is selected depending on the type of goods that are transported with a given lever, eg stainless steel is used for goods that go to store shelves, because it is easy to clean. Each elevator has a door, usually hinged, manually operated. 

technical inspection authority 

All construction lifts are subject to technical inspection in accordance with the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 7 December 2012 on the types of technical devices subject to technical inspection (Journal of Laws of 2012, item 1468). Following the above regulation, we can conclude that in order for a construction crane to be fully used to work on a construction site, it must have a valid decision authorizing its operation, issued by a designated technical inspection unit. How to get such a decision? The device should be reported in writing for technical examination, which will confirm the safety of its use. Then submit the relevant documentation to the Office of Technical Inspection, which will send its employee to test the efficiency of the device. After receiving a positive result, we obtain a time-limited decision (the equipment should undergo constant maintenance in order to ensure the safety of its operators and other employees) allowing for the operation of the construction crane. Crane repairs and service activities should be performed periodically. 

Operator Training Center  

OSO offers new trainings in the field of goods and passenger lifts. Course it consists of a theoretical and practical part, preparing for the UDT exam. Our clients receive a certificate of completion of the course, and after successfully passing the exam, they are authorized to operate goods and passenger lifts in the form of a UDT qualification certificate, valid for 10 years. Within three months before the expiry date of the certificate, an application should be submitted to extend the validity of the certificate, in which we declare that in the last 5 years, we have been operating hoists and winches for at least 3 years. We submit an application for extension in paper or electronic form to the UDT unit that issued us the qualification certificate. 

UDT licenses for cranes are issued in two categories: 

- "DI" for construction lifts, they entitle the candidate to operate construction goods and goods-passenger lifts as well as goods lifts. 

- "D II" for goods and passenger lifts with internal control and hospital (authorizes to operate goods and passenger lifts with internal control and hospital lifts without cab load control). 

We cordially invite you to familiarize yourself with the full offer of services and training provided by SPAs on our official website Edukacja-udt.pl. There you will also find information on how our trainings are conducted and the price list. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us by phone and have a nice day. 

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